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450 West Drive
Chapel Hill, NC

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

The Emanuele Lab studies cell cycle regulation using systematic technologies and traditional cell, molecular and biochemical techniques.

Buffers & Solutions

Buffer, reagent and solution recipes

Buffer recipe download

SDS-PAGE Gel Loading Buffer (Laemmli Buffer)

62.5 mM Tris, pH = 6.8

2% SDS (w/v)

10% Glycerol

100 mM DTT

Bromophenol Blue (0.1%)


To prepare 10 ml of 4x:

2.5 ml of 1M Tris, pH 6.8

0.8 g SDS

4 ml glycerol (best to weigh out ~5g with tube on balance since pipetting glycerol is inaccurate)

0.64 g DTT

800 ul of 1% bromophenol blue solution

H20 to 10 ml




SDS-PAGE Gel Running Buffer

25 mM Tris

192 mM Glycine

0.1% SDS (w/v)


To prepare 1 Liter of 10x:

30.3 g Tris

144 g Glycine

10 g SDS




Semi Dry Transfer Buffer- 15% Methanol- for Western Blot Transfer (a.k.a Towbin Buffer)

25 mM Tris Base

192 mM Glycine

15% Methanol


To prepare 1 Liter of 10x:

3 g of Tris Base (MW: 121 g/mol)

14.4 g of Glycine (MW: 75 g/mol)

150 ml Methanol

Note:  Vary methanol as needed (0-20%)





Wet Transfer Buffer- 20% Methanol- for Western Blot Transfer

20 mM Tris

150 mM Glycine


To prepare 1 liter of 10x:

24.2g Tris base (MW 121)

112.5 g Glycine



To prepare 1 liter of 1x:

100 mL 10x wet transfer buffer

200 mL methanol

700 mL ddH2O





Mini Prep Alkaline Lysis Solutions

Alkaline Lysis Solution I

50 mM glucose

25 mM Tris-Cl (pH 8.0)

10 mM EDTA (pH 8.0)

(add Rnase I before use at 10ug/ml)


Alkaline Lysis Solution II

0.2 N NaOH

1% (w/v) SDS


Alkaline Lysis Solution III

3 M potassium acetate

glacial acetic acid (11.5 ml per 100 ml)






20 mM Tris pH 8.0

100 mM NaCl

0.5 mM EDTA

0.5% NP40


To prepare 500 mL:

10 mL 1 M Tris, pH 7.5

10 mL 5 M NaCl

0.5 mL 0.5 M EDTA

2.5 mL NP40

Bring to volume using double distilled water





Coomassie Blue

1 g R250 Coomasie Blue per Liter final

40% Methanol

10% Glacial Acetic Acid


For 1 Liter:

400ml Methanol

100ml Glacial Acetic Acid

1g R250 Brilliant blue






10% Acetic Acid

20% Methanol


For 1 liter:

200 ml Methanol

100 ml Glacial Acetic Acid

Fill to 1L with water





PHEM Buffer



10 mM EGTA

2 mM MgCl2

pH 7.0 with KOH


Prepare as a 2X solution and store at 4°C:

18.14 g PIPES

6.5 g HEPES

3.8 g EGTA

0.99 g MgSO4






Mounting Media for Immunofluorescence

20 mM Tris pH 8

90% Glycerol

0.5% N-phenyleindiamine


Aliquot and store protected from light at -80°C





Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS)

137 mM NaCl

2.7 mM KCl

10.5 mM Na2HPO4

1.76 mM KH2PO4

pH of 1x = 7.4


To prepare 1 liter of 10x:

80 g NaCl

2 g KCl

11.5 g Na2HPO4 (MW 141.96)

2.4 g KH2PO4   (MW 136.09)





LB (Luria Broth)

10 g Tryptone

5 g Yeast extract

10 g NaCl





SOB Bacterial Media


2% Bact-tryptone

0.5% Yeast extract

10 mM NaCl

2.5 mM KCl


To prepare 1 liter:

Measure ~900 ml of distilled H2O

Add 20 g Bacto Tryptone

Add 5 g Bacto Yeast Extract

Add 2 ml of 5M NaCl

Add 2.5 ml of 1M KCl

Adjust to 1 L with distilled H2O


Sterilize by autoclaving





SOC Bacterial Media



2% Bact-tryptone

0.5% Yeast extract

10 mM NaCl

2.5 mM KCl

10 mM MgCl2 (or 20mM MgSO4)

20 mM Glucose



1- SOC is SOB + Glucose + MgCl2

2- Do not autoclave SOC!


To prepare 50 ml:

48.5 ml SOB

1ml 1 M Glucose

500ul 1 M MgCl2





Ponceau S

0.1% (w/v) Ponceau S

5% (v/v) acetic Acid


To prepare 200ml:

10 ml Glacial Acetic Acid

190 ml water

0.2 g Ponceau S





Tris Buffered Saline (TBS)

137 mM NaCl

2.7 mM KCl

25mM Tris

pH of 1x = 7.4


To prepare 1 liter of 10x:

80 g NaCl

2g KCl

30g Tris base   (MW  121)






TAE (Tris-acetate-EDTA) DNA gel running buffer

40 mM Tris

20 mM Acetic Acid



To prepare 1 L of 50x stock:

242 g Tris Base

18.6 g EDTA (or 100ml of 0.5M EDTA)

57.1 ml Glacial Acetic Acid





RIPA Lysis Buffer

50 mM Tris pH 7.5

150 mM NaCl

0.1% SDS

0.5% Na Deoxycholate

1% Triton-X 100



To make 500 ml:

25 ml of 1M Tris, pH 7.5

15 ml 5M NaCl

500 µl of 10% SDS

2.5 g Na Deoxycholate

25 ml 20% Triton X 100

1 ml 0.5M EDTA





1KB DNA Ladder (working stock)

1 KB DNA ladder (Invitrogen cat no 10787-018; 250ul @ conc 1ug/ul) diluted to 0.2ug/ul

10 mM Tris pH 7.5


50 mM NaCl

2x Orange G loading buffer


Prepare 1.25 ml stock:

250 ul 10x Orange G loading Buffer

250 ul 1KB DNA ladder

12.5 ul 5M NaCl

737.5 ul TE (Tris-EDTA)


Aliquot into ~200ul aliquots. Store working solution at 4°C, remaining aliquots at -20°C





TE (Tris-EDTA)

10 mM Tris pH 8






10x Orange G DNA Loading Buffer

15% glycerol

2 mg/ml Orange G


Prepare 50 ml stock:

100 mg Orange G

7.5 mL Glycerol

Water to 50 mL






Prepare100 mg/ml stock in water (store @ -20°C)






Prepare100 mg/ml stock in water (store @ -20°C)






Prepare 25 mg/ml stock in ethanol (store @ -20°C)




AEBSF (PMSF alternative- more stable)

Prepare 200 mM stock water (store @ -20°C)





Leupeptin (protease inh)

Dissolve to 10 mg/ml in ethanol





Aprotonin (protease inh)

Dissolve to 10 mg/ml in water




Pepstatin A (protease inh)

Dissolve to 10 mg/ml in DMSO or ethanol





Sodium Orthovanadate

Prepare 200mM stock in water.

To prepare, mix sodium orthvanadate with water and adjust pH to 10. Put in capped tubes and sit in boiling water for 10 minutes (or until solution becomes colorless). Repeat 2 more times, or until pH does not changes after heating. This process activates sodium orthovanadate.






Prepare 200mM stock solution in water and store at 4°C.





Sodium Fluoride

Prepare 200 mM stock in water and store at room temperature.





Hypotonic Lysis Buffer


1.5 mM MgCl2

10 mM KCl

0.5 mM DTT